Maria Cofinas, Colin Creighton
National Land and Water Resources Audit, 2001
ISBN 0 642 37128 8
Mountain ash regrowth (Eucalyptus regnans) forest
Photo: Michael Ryan
Australia's native vegetation types respond to the climatic variation across the continent. The lush tropical rainforests of Queensland's wet tropics are a stark contrast to the hummock grasslands and saltpans of the arid interior. Both are comparatively unique. Both contain a high degree of endemism. Within these climatic extremes lies a broad range of native vegetation types with varying structural (height and density) features from tall forests, to varying closed and open shrublands through to grasslands and forblands, all with their own species assemblages.
The physical landscape-landform, lithology and soils-can either offset or exacerbate climatic influences by providing microenvironments. Landforms such as mountain plateau or gullies may act as climatic refuges allowing more temperate or moisture seeking plants to survive in regions where the climate is otherwise unfavourable. These variations in the physical environment may effect both the structural and floristic composition of plant communities.
Against this palette of variation and diversity, Australia is dominated by a few key plant genera ranging across the broad range of structural vegetation types (Figure 8, Tables 3, 4). Eucalypt communities are widespread and probably the best known genus. Acacias, or wattles cover large areas of the continent, particularly in the low rainfall interior. Hummock grasslands cover a very large proportion of the arid interior.
- The hummock grasslands dominate Australia's native vegetation. These occur extensively in Western Australia, the Northern Territory and South Australia, accounting for 23% of the native vegetation.
- Other major vegetation groups covering greater than 500,000 km² each and together covering 39% of Australia are:
- eucalypt woodlands;
- acacia forests and woodlands;
- acacia shrublands;
- tussock grasslands; and
- chenopod/samphire shrubs and forblands.
- A number of major vegetation groups that are quite restricted in area, covering less than 70,000 km2 each and together covering approximately 2.6% of Australia, include:
- rainforest and vine thickets;
- eucalypt tall open forests;
- eucalypt low open forests;
- callitris and casuarina forests and woodlands;
- low closed forests and closed shrublands; and
|Major vegetation group||Area|
|Cleared/modified native vegetation||982,051|
|Rainforest and vine thickets||30,231|
|Eucalypt tall open forests||30,129|
|Eucalypt open forests||240,484|
|Eucalypt low open forests||12,922|
|Acacia forests and woodlands||560,649|
|Callitris forests and woodlands||27,724|
|Casuarina forests and woodlands||60,848|
|Melaleuca forests and woodlands||90,513|
|Other forests and woodlands||119,384|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||384,310|
|Tropical eucalypt woodlands/grasslands||254,228|
|Acacia open woodlands||114,755|
|Mallee woodlands and shrublands||250,420|
|Low closed forests and closed shrublands||8,749|
|Other grasslands, herblands, sedgelands and rushlands||98,523|
|Chenopod shrubs, samphire shrubs and forblands||552,394|
|Mangroves, tidal mudflats, samphires and bare areas, claypan, sand, rock, salt lakes, lagoons, lakes -||106,999|
The decision framework that underpinned compilation of the range of mapped present vegetation data sets into the National Vegetation Information System hierarchy is provided in Appendix 9.
Major vegetation groups that were mapped represent the dominant vegetation occurring in a particular area.
Appendix 1 presents the area and type of major vegetetation group in each IBRA bioregion. Information collated into a consistent framework can be used to report on Australia's native vegetation using any defined region selected by users.
Information about the extent and type of remaining native vegetation can be integrated with other key data sets to understand:
- landscape function;
- remaining habitats;
- opportunities for catchment rehabilitation, whether the issue is catchment hydrology or dryland salinity control;
- priorities for protection and rehabilitation, ensuring remaining native vegetation is representative of Australia's pre-European communities; and
- the contribution of native vegetation to land use planning and sustainable use of Australia's natural resources.
Native regrowth and native plantings have not been specifically mapped or compiled into the National Vegetation Information System. Much of the mapping compiled in the National Vegetation Information System does not include small native vegetation remnants such as road reserves, travelling stock routes and undeveloped lands within farming landscapes.
The National Vegetation Information System data sets have the greatest reliability in mapping the type and extent of the native vegetation. Additional data used to compile an Australia-wide map of major vegetation groups should be considered an interim product and provides broad scale information on native vegetation.
The aggregation into major vegetation groups for summary analysis purposes simplifies the health of data provided for collation under the National Vegetation Information System, with the species and type detail behind all mapping programs provided in lower categories of the hierarchy.
The Guidelines section provides guidelines on the use of the information and Appendix 8 presents information on the sources of data that have been collated into the National Vegetation Information System to represent Australia's native vegetation including the extent, scale and date of collection. Figures 9 and 10 provide information on the location and extent of data sets, their scale and level of classification used to develop the major vegetation groups.
The State and Territory summaries of present vegetation also provide guidelines on the use of the information.
|Major vegetation group||Australian Capital Territory||New South Wales||Northern Territory||Queensland||South Australia||Tasmania||Victoria||Western Australia|
|Cleared-modified native vegetation||738||234,527||6,055||304,043||99,473||10,695||142,633||183,887|
|Rainforest and vine thickets||-||2,218||977||19,558||-||7,055||407||16|
|Eucalypt tall open forests||4||4,405||-||429||-||6,193||16,755||2,343|
|Eucalypt open forests||937||90,979||58,471||35,150||396||19,212||15,018||20,321|
|Eucalypt low open forests||49||10,883||70||111||17||106||180||1,506|
|Acacia forests and woodlands||-||21,184||29,866||91,534||15,414||28||400||402,223|
|Callitris forests and woodlands||5||22,132||-||4,134||1,023||1||429||-|
|Casuarina forests and woodlands||3||40,698||-||1,545||15,261||156||46||3,139|
|Melaleuca forests and woodlands||-||14||19,244||70,014||7||-||45||1,189|
|Other forests and woodlands||-||141||29,497||49,266||34,958||359||2,186||2,977|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||270||31,245||175,775||134,421||7,652||1,108||1,185||32,654|
|Tropical eucalypt woodlands/ grasslands||-||-||107,254||20,653||-||-||-||126,321|
|Acacia open woodlands||-||138||48,703||36,734||25,414||-||-||3,766|
|Mallee woodlands and shrublands||-||33,889||35,450||14||118,531||-||10,843||51,693|
|Low closed forests and closed shrublands||-||3,725||-||445||3||2,168||818||1,590|
|Other grasslands, herblands, sedgelands and rushlands||2||65,761||7,633||4,771||772||10,670||1,059||7,855|
|Chenopod shrubs, samphire shrubs and forblands||-||62,322||33,753||81,944||182,644||28||2,038||189,665|
|Mangroves, tidal mudflats, samphires and bare areas, claypans, sand, rock, salt lakes, lagoons, lakes||18||5,411||5,410||15,143||28,769||1,880||2,257||48,111|
|Note: - Indicates that this major vegetation group does not exist in a particular jurisdiction or that the scale and type of mapping compiled has not captured this major vegetation group.|
Photo: Murray-Darling Basin Commission
Thousands of years of traditional Aboriginal land use practices modified Australia's vegetation mainly through the impact of fire. Never has Australia's vegetation experienced such rapid change as since European settlement when large scale clearing and modification has occurred in a relatively short amount of time.
Agricultural, pastoral and urban development has significantly and rapidly changed Australian vegetation and landscapes in the 200 years since European settlement. Impacts have varied with land uses and include:
- broadacre clearing for cultivation and grazing on improved pastures;
- forest modification through logging practices, harvesting or disturbing selected species;
- rangeland modification through grazing practices, fire regime changes and introduction of weeds and feral animals, resulting in some species loss and change;
- exotic introductions (e.g. pine forests, weeds, including willow, and feral animals); and
- major alteration/loss of native vegetation and filling of wetlands in urban areas and transport corridors.
Broad-scale clearing has accelerated the effects of a number of processes, threatening the long-term viability of our native vegetation (e.g. native vegetation clearing and its replacement with shallow-rooted crops and pastures has contributed to rising water tables, the mobilisation of salt and other hydrological changes). Vegetation clearing has, therefore, led to landscape salinisation, increased sediment, nutrient and salt loads in rivers and streams, loss of habitat and a decline in biodiversity (Williams 2000). Further information on the risk of dryland salinity in Australia can be found in Australia's Dryland Salinity Assessment 2000 (NLWRA 2001a).
Regions most affected by intensive land use development (Table 5 and Figure 11) occur in:
- south-west Western Australia;
- southern South Australia;
- western and central Victoria;
- the midlands and northern Tasmania;
- large areas of central and the eastern lowlands of New South Wales;
- northern and eastern Australian Capital Territory;
- central and south-east Queensland; and
- small isolated patches in the Northern Territory.
In many of these regions native woody vegetation only survives as isolated trees in paddocks or linear strips (e.g. in windbreaks or along road reserves and stock routes). Native grasslands now grade into exotic sown pastures and/or weed fields. Often the remnants that do occur are on land that is unproductive for agricultural land uses or held by a landholder with a strong commitment to nature conservation.
Management of remnants, while important, is costly. For example, where surrounding land use is 'hostile' (e.g. urban uses as a source of exotic animals, wildfires and weeds) and the habitat patches are small, it will be necessary to actively manage remnants to avoid degradation (Williams 2000).
These summary maps and tables provide information on Australia's native vegetation collated within the National Vegetation Information System at July 2001 and with additional mapped informaton where not available from the National Vegetation Information System. The National Vegetation Information System will be updated continuously as vegetation mapping data becomes available from States and Territories.
|State/Territory||Area native vegetation remaining (km²)||Percent Remaining|
|Australian Capital Territory||1,620||69|
|New South Wales||470,604||67|
|Australia (intensive zone)||1,967,755||68|
Large areas of intact native vegetation in intensively used regions are either used for forestry and nature conservation or are still within government tenure and unallocated. Few large patches are on private land.
Major threats to remnant vegetation include continued land use development, particularly:
- road and power infrastructure;
- urban expansion; and
- loss of condition, such as might occur with overgrazing and broad scale clearing for agricultural land.
Figures 12 and 13 summarise the percentage of native vegetation remaining by river basin and IBRA subregion. These maps provide useful summaries at a regional level for assessing clearing patterns in Australia, the implications at a river basin scale and the imperatives for remnant management within IBRA subregions. Those river basins and subregions with less than 30% remaining native vegetation are listed in Tables 6 and 7. Twenty-five river basins and 42 IBRA subregions have less than 30% remaining native vegetation.
Appendix 1 presents the area of major vegetation groups and percentage of native vegetation remaining in each IBRA bioregion.
|River Basin||Area of Native Vegetation (ha)||Percent vegetation remaining|
|Wimmera - Avon Rivers||528,756||17.4|
|Sydney Coast - Georges River||50,700||29.3|
|Sub Region||Area of Native Vegetation (ha)||Percent vegetation remaining|
|Victorian Riverina (VR)||91,604||5.1|
|Victorian Volcanic Plain (VP)||158,452||7.6|
|Avon Wheatbelt P2||254,948||8.5|
|Callide Creek Downs||33,000||11.1|
|Glenn Innes-Guyra Basalts||32,236||11.6|
|Dawson River Downs||116,404||11.8|
|Dundas Tablelands (DT)||64,420||13.1|
|Warrnambool Plain (WP)||31,084||13.3|
|Eastern Darling Downs||253,884||15.5|
|Mount Lofty Ranges||47,132||15.7|
|Moonie R. - Commoron Creek Floodout||137,516||17.1|
|Avon Wheatbelt P1||1,129,720||17.3|
|Gippsland Plain (GIP)||240,192||20.0|
|Murray Mallee (MM)||1,125,176||20.4|
|Isaac - Comet Downs||702,260||26.0|
|Moonie - Barwon Interfluve, Collarenebri Interfluve||188,988||26.2|
|Strzelecki Ranges (STZ)||94,668||27.5|
|West Balonne Plains||600,240||29.1|
|Upper Belyando Floodout||128,848||29.4|
The analysis of native vegetation extent is based on the compiled information, as detailed in previous sections.
As noted in the previous section, the age of the data sets, their accuracy and the attributes mapped vary.
Woody cover is over-represented in central and western New South Wales and Tasmania due to the age of the data sets available for compilation into the National Vegetation Information System and development of the major vegetation groups. Some regions within these States have experienced much higher levels of clearing than reported. More accurate information for New South Wales and Tasmania is available from those States.
Native and derived grasslands are often not well mapped particularly in mapping coverages from South Australia, New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory.
Soil erosion, Thrushton NP, Qld
Photo: Murray Fagg
An assessment of landscape health (NLWRA 2001c) has used existing information to assess regional differences in landscape health from a natural ecosystems perspective to help guide national initiatives for biodiversity conservation. The information from this study is presented by IBRA subregions.
Broad indications of environmental decline across Australia include:
- soil erosion;
- weed infestations;
- dryland salinity; and
- regional fauna extinctions.
The accumulating impact of European patterns of land use profoundly affects many Australian landscapes, ecosystems and their biological diversity. An understanding of relativities in landscape health is needed to help guide the urgent and effective responses required to prevent further long-term damage to landscape health, and where necessary, repair the damage already done.
The continent was divided into two discrete zones for analysis and reporting of some attributes: the intensive use zone (extensive clearing has occurred or is occurring) and the extensive use zone (land use predominantly relies on the use of native vegetation). The concept is similar to extensive and intensive land use zones used by Graetz et al. 1995, but unlike these-defined by 1:250,000 scale map sheets-they are defined by grouping subregions. Subregions in the intensive use zone have generally been cleared of more than 10% of the original native vegetation.
Regeneration from clearing, Mount Sheridan Rd, Lake Grace, WA
Photo: Murray Fagg
Attributes in the assessment included:
- vegetation extent and clearing;
- land use;
- fragmentation of native vegetation;
- hydrological change;
- feral animals; and
- threatened ecosystems and species.
The synthesis and reporting of these attributes was undertaken for both land use zones.
Subregions in the intensive use zone have a history of land use intensification, including clearing, pasture development, cropping and plantation establishment. Assessment of general landscape health in the intensive land use zone must separate the cleared and developed areas from the undeveloped areas. The biodiversity component of landscape health in the intensive use zone relates largely to the extent, distribution and condition of the remaining native vegetation, and these are also reflected in the health of the subregion as a whole.
In the extensive use zone native vegetation is essentially continuous at the scale of this study. Biodiversity and landscape health is inextricably entwined across each subregion.
The particular condition and trend attributes used to provide a synthesis of landscape health were compiled to provide a measure of 'landscape stress' (Figure 14) across Australia by subregion.
Continental landscape stress
The intensive use zone contains the most degraded landscapes-37 subregions in the two highest landscape stress ratings have less than 30% of the original native vegetation extent. Native vegetation occurs mainly as small and isolated fragments, only a small proportion of which are managed conservatively. More than two-thirds of the ecosystems representative of these subregions have less than 30% of original extent remaining and are now at risk of collapse or total loss. No subregions in the extensive use zone could be considered to be in such poor health.
Subregions in the intensive use zone in the third highest landscape stress class usually have 30-50% of original native vegetation extent remaining and although relatively fragmented, it has been cleared in such a way that moderate areas of most of the original ecosystems remain. The overall health of ecosystems in these subregions approximates that of the most heavily used subregions of the extensive use zone (those in the two highest extensive use zone stress classes) where, although there has been little or no clearing, more than 70% of their area typically has a history of relatively high total grazing pressures.
Decreasing grazing pressures in subregions in the remaining extensive use zone stress classes roughly correspond to decreasing land use pressures in the remaining intensive use zone stress classes.
Remnant trees and ploughed paddock on basalt, Tas
Photo: Michael Ryan
Table 8 and Figure 15 detail the status of the 23 major vegetation groups since European settlement.
At the continental scale, the real differences in patterns of clearing between major vegetation groups are not clear. This is partly because the largest proportion of Australia, the rangelands, remains relatively free of broad-scale clearing.
The key emerging picture at the Australia-wide scale is that the most affected vegetation groups, where approximately 50% of the pre-European extent now remains, are the low closed forests and closed shrublands and the heaths. These two major vegetation groups were already very restricted in their pre-European extent so that further clearing has a major impact on aerial extent.
Major vegetation groups where 60-80% of pre-European extent remains are:
- rainforest and vine thickets;
- eucalypt tall open forests;
- eucalypt open forests;
- eucalypt woodlands;
- eucalypt open woodlands; and
- mallee woodlands and shrublands.
Of these, rainforest and vine thickets and eucalypt tall open forests were very restricted in their pre-European extent.
|Major vegetation group||Present||Pre–European||Percent Remaining|
|Rainforest and vine thickets||30,231||43,493||70|
|Eucalypt tall open forests||30,129||44,817||67|
|Eucalypt open forests||240,484||340,968||71|
|Eucalypt low open forests||12,922||15,066||86|
|Acacia forests and woodlands||560,649||657,582||85|
|Callitris forests and woodlands||27,724||30,963||90|
|Casuarina forests and woodlands||60,848||73,356||83|
|Melaleuca forests and woodlands||90,513||93,501||97|
|Other forests and woodlands||119,384||125,328||95|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||384,310||513,943||75|
|Tropical eucalypt woodland/grasslands||254,228||256,434||99|
|Acacia open woodlands||114,755||117,993||97|
|Mallee woodlands and shrublands||250,420||383,399||65|
|Low closed forests and closed shrublands||8,749||15,864||55|
|Other grasslands, herblands, sedgelands and rushlands||98,523||100,504||98|
|Chenopod shrubs, samphire shrubs and forblands||552,394||563,389||98|
|Mangroves, tidal mudflats, samphires and bare areas, claypans, sand, rock, salt lakes, lagoons, lakes||106,999||112,063||96|
|Note: This table provides a broad analysis of Australia's pre-European and present major vegetation groups based on available data. The methods, limitations and Guidelines section of the report provide a reference to the data used in this analysis.|
This analysis is based on a comparison of the present extent of major vegetation groups and pre-European mapping.
Analysis at the Australia-wide, State and Territory and regional scales provides information on which to base broad assessments of change in extent and type of vegetation. This is a key input to assessing:
- the representativeness or otherwise of Australia's nature conservation estate and for related interpretations (e.g. setting priorities for retention of native vegetation types);
- opportunities for catchment rehabilitation, whether the issue is catchment hydrology or dryland salinity control;
- the types of vegetation suitable for rehabilitation, restoration and/or revegetation activities in an area; and
- priorities for protection of biodiversity in landscapes under stress.
Pre-European vegetation and present native vegetation for many States and Territories do not match in mapping method or scale. Development of pre-European vegetation maps in cleared areas of Australia is usually dependent upon coarse or generalised data on landforms and soils sometimes at 1:250,000 or even 1:1,000,000 scale. Reconstructing the natural complexity of vegetation patterns from such broad interpretations is difficult. Earlier vegetation mapping for areas now cleared may similarly be coarse in scale and/or generalised, with little data from systematic field sampling to support the derivation of mapping units and the allocation of individual patches of native vegetation to mapping units.
Pre-European data is more reliable where:
- impacts of European land use is minimal;
- there is good physical and floristic information (e.g. in Victoria) which can be used for detailed interpolation; and
- the scale of the pre-European mapping and method is similar to that of the current extent mapping (e.g. in Queensland, Victoria, Northern Territory and Western Australia).
Data variability is greatest in New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory and South Australia, where the pre-European data does not meet the requirements of the National Vegetation Information System. In Tasmania the pre-European data is not finalised. In these States it is assumed that the present vegetation mapped is an approximate representation of the pre-European vegetation. The Australia wide pre-European major vegetation groups data set is an interim product.
This case study demonstrates the use of the National Vegetation Information System information on major vegetation groups and information hierarchy at Level IV to determine the changes in vegetation type and extent at a subregional level. Detail is also provided on the present land use and land tenure in the region as part of the information set necessary to underpin regional planning and management decisions.
The Isaac - Comet Downs subregion has been selected as the subregion to demonstrate this application as it has a complete vegetation data set for both pre-European and present type and extent at 1:100,000 scale. The vegetation data sets are complemented by a complete coverage of land use in the subregion at 1:100,000 scale (Calvert et al. 2000). This congruence in scales of available data facilitates analysis.
Geology and vegetation
Isaac - Comet Downs is an extensive but diverse subregion in tropical western Queensland. It is an undulating subregion dominated by Tertiary and other Cainozoic deposits, with mid-Catena deposits being slightly more prominent. Tableland and dissected remnants of the upper Tertiary surface are widespread, supporting narrow-leaved Eucalyptus crebra woodlands on the earths of undulating plateaus, and bendee (Acacia catenulata) or lancewood (A. shirleyi) on the rocky hills and mesas. The lower parts of the Tertiary surface are dominated by brigalow (A. harpophylla) and Dawson gum (E. cambageana) communities on undulating clay or tenure contrast soils. These communities dominate the subregion. Alluvium is also prominent and the predominantly fine-textured soils of the alluvium carry brigalow or coolibah (E. coolabah) woodlands. Fine-grained Permian sediments are exposed due to long term weathering, giving rise to grasslands, open woodlands and areas of brigalow (Young et al. 1999).
The dominant land use in the subregion is livestock grazing with smaller areas of dryland agriculture and a large area of irrigated agriculture near Emerald (Figure 16). Two nature conservation areas are present in the subregion, Dipperu and Taunton National Parks (0.7% of the region). One large crown reserve, that is used for grazing and forestry, accounts for 2.8% of the region. The majority of the remnant vegetation is on freehold tenure. Overall the subregion, other than the Crown estate, is a mix in about equal proportions of freehold and leasehold tenure.
Native vegetation and change
Figures 17 and 18 show the pre-European and present vegetation types and extent of the vegetation mapped by major vegetation group. Table 9 presents the area of pre-European and present major vegetation groups.
The total area of the subregion is 27,011 km² with 28% remaining vegetation of the pre-European extent. This diverse subregion had the fourth highest level of clearing between 1997 and 1999 (Sattler 2001).
The remaining native vegetation and areas cleared are presented in Table 10. The most impacted major vegetation groups, with less than 30% of the pre-European vegetation extent remaining, are:
- rainforest and vine thickets (0.18% of the total area);
- eucalypt open forests (0.01% of the total area);
- acacia forests and woodlands (9.21% of the total area);
- acacia open woodlands (none remaining); and
- tussock grasslands (0.47% of the total area).
All groups have restricted distributions in the subregion.
Fine scale detail on vegetation change
Because of the richness of the National Vegetation Information System database in this region, this analysis can be repeated at all levels of the hierarchy, providing the finer definition of vegetation types required for the development of management plans. This analysis is presented at Level IV (vegetation subformation) describing the floristic and structural characteristics for the upper- and mid-strata, and structure of the lower vegetation stratum.
Table 11 shows that 17 of the 51 (or 34%) of the subformations have less than 30% remaining native vegetation. These are primarily eucalypt and acacia woodlands with grassy understorey and eucalypt/acacia mixed open forests and low closed forests with shrubs and grassy understorey. Remnant management, connectivity between remnants and minimisation of any further clearing are key management responses for these vegetation types. As to how this is implemented in the subregion, which land areas, what interaction with tenure types is a task for the regional groups, armed with the knowledge that this assessment provides.
At the other end of the perspective, eleven (22%) of the subformations have more than 70% remaining vegetation. These are primarily eucalypt woodlands with acacia shrubs and grassy understorey, being the areas of lower site quality for agricultural and grazing development. Again, armed with this information, regional groups can develop vegetation management strategies.
|Major vegetation groups||Pre-European extent||Present extent|
|Area (ha)||Percent of total area||Area (ha)||Percent of total area|
|Cleared (primarily agricultural, grazing, urban and infrastructure)||-||-||1 955 790||72.41|
|Rainforest and vine thickets||34 386||1.27||4 860||0.18|
|Eucalypt open forests||1 731||0.06||397||0.01|
|Eucalypt woodlands||715 377||26.48||340 154||12.59|
|Acacia forests and woodlands||1 470 403||54.44||248 738||9.21|
|Callitris forests and woodlands||506||0.02||245||0.01|
|Casuarina forests and woodlands||23 429||0.87||8 651||0.32|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||380 877||14.10||125 895||4.66|
|Acacia open woodlands||1 704||0.06||0||0|
|Other shrublands||2 863||0.11||1 427||0.05|
|Tussock grasslands||68 541||2.54||12 629||0.47|
|Other grasslands, herblands, sedgelands and rushlands||1 162||0.04||774||0.03|
|Bare areas, claypans, sand, rock, salt lakes, lagoons, freshwater lakes (increase in area includes the water storages, supplying water for the high value irrigation development)||100||~ 0.00||1 518||0.06|
|Major vegetation groups||Area cleared (ha)||Percent of pre-European extent remaining|
|Rainforest and vine thickets||29 525||14.13|
|Eucalypt open forests||1 334||22.95|
|Eucalypt woodlands||375 223||47.54|
|Acacia forests and woodlands||1 221 665||16.91|
|Callitris forests and woodlands||260||48.51|
|Casuarina forests and woodlands||14 779||36.92|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||254 982||33.05|
|Acacia open woodlands||1 704||0|
|Other shrublands||1 436||49.83|
|Tussock grasslands||55 911||18.42|
|Other grasslands, herblands, sedgelands and rushlands||388||66.64|
|Vegetation sub-formation (Level IV)||Pre-European area (ha)||Present area (ha)||Vegetation cleared (ha)||Percent of pre-European extent remaining|
|Acacia low open woodlands/dichanthium tussock grassland||1 704||0||1 704||0|
|Eucalypt woodlands/coniferous woodlands/mixed unable to determine structural formation||468||0||468||0|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia tall sparse shrubland/grassy tussock grassland||16||1 916||-1 900||100|
|Coniferous woodlands/coniferous isolated shrubs/grassy tussock grassland||214||10||205||5|
|Acacia open forests/mixed open shrubland||467 518||45 973||421 545||10|
|Mixed low closed forests/mixed low woodlands||184||19||165||10|
|Acacia open forests/mixed tall open shrubland/grassy sparse tussock grassland||833 373||96 682||736 691||12|
|Mixed low closed forests/mixed tall open shrubland/grassy isolated tussock grasses||34 202||4 841||29 360||14|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed tall open shrubland/grassy open tussock grassland||10 559||1 561||8 998||15|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed tall open tussock grassland||16 611||2 457||14 154||15|
|Acacia open forests/mixed tall shrubland/grassy sparse tussock grassland||12 940||1 921||11 019||15|
|Acacia low isolated trees/astrebla and iseilema open tussock grassland||68 541||12 629||55 911||18|
|Eucalypt open forests/mixed tall open shrubland||1 616||353||1 263||22|
|Mixed woodlands||5 413||1 387||4 026||26|
|Eucalypt open woodlands/mixed sparse shrubland/spinifex sparse tussock grassland||147 066||38 275||108 791||26|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed tall isolated shrubs/grassy tussock grassland||14 757||3 876||10 881||26|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed open tussock grassland||7 422||2 067||5 355||28|
|Eucalypt open woodlands/mixed tall sparse shrublands||19 071||5 674||13 396||30|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed isolated shrubs/grassy open tussock grasslands||39 553||12 696||26 856||32|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed tall sparse shrublands||44 271||14 792||29 479||33|
|Eucalypt open woodlands/mixed tall sparse shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||78 362||28 517||49 845||36|
|Casuarina open woodlands||23 429||8 651||14 779||37|
|Eucalypt open woodlands/mixed low isolated shrubs/grassy open tussock grasslands||131 874||50 068||81 805||38|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed low tussock grasslands||123 629||47 204||76 425||38|
|Eucalypt mallee woodlands/spinifex woodlands||115||45||71||39|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed tall isolated shrubs/grassy open tussock grasslands||2 694||1 064||1 629||40|
|Melaleuca tall open shrublands||373||166||207||44|
|Eucalypt woodlands/grassy tussock grasslands||205 217||93 522||111 696||46|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia tall open shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||17 254||8 354||8 900||48|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia tall open shrublands||97 006||47 896||49 110||49|
|Eucalypt woodlands/melaleuca woodlands/mixed sparse rushlands||7 224||3 641||3 583||50|
|Mixed open shrublands||2 490||1 261||1 229||51|
|Eucalypt open woodlands||395||229||166||58|
|Acacia open forests/mixed low woodlands||36 245||21 627||14 618||60|
|Cyperaceae low open sedgelands||1 162||774||388||67|
|Eucalypt woodlands/dichanthium tussock grasslands||56||38||19||67|
|Acacia low woodlands/mixed sparse shrublands/grassy sparse tussock grasslands||30 893||20 943||9 950||68|
|Acacia woodlands/acacia tall sparse shrublands/grassy sparse tussock grasslands||88 919||61 235||27 684||69|
|Acacia open forests/mixed tall open shrublands||514||357||157||69|
|Eucalypt woodlands||69 568||51 290||18 278||74|
|Eucalypt open woodlands/acacia open shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||4 110||3 132||978||76|
|Mixed woodlands/mixed tall open shrublands||901||708||193||79|
|Coniferous open forests/acacia sparse shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||291||235||56||81|
|Eucalypt woodlands/chenopod sparse shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||46 492||40 006||6 487||86|
|Eucalypt woodlands/grassy open tussock grasslands||1 635||1 423||212||87|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed shrublands/grassy sparse tussock grasslands||732||654||78||89|
|Eucalypt woodlands/mixed open cycadland||61||55||6||91|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia low sparse shrublands/grassy tussock grasslands||2 123||1 938||185||91|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia sparse shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||1 550||1 447||104||93|
|Eucalypt woodlands/acacia open shrublands/grassy open tussock grasslands||163||163||0||100|
|Note: A negative value indicates an increase in extent of vegetation type|
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